plan is typically any diagram or list of steps with timing and resources, used to achieve an objective. See also strategy. It is commonly understood as a temporal set of intended actions through which one expects to achieve a goal. For spatial or planar topologic or topographic sets see map.
Structured and formal plans, used by multiple people, are more likely to occur in projects, diplomacy, careers, economic development, military campaigns, combat, sports,games, or in the conduct of other business. In most cases, the absence of a well-laid plan can have adverse effects: for example, a non-robust project plan can cost the organization time and money.Informal or ad hoc plans are created by individuals in all of their pursuits.
The most popular ways to describe plans are by their breadth, time frame, and specificity; however, these planning classifications are not independent of one another. For instance, there is a close relationship between the short- and long-term categories and the strategic and operational categories.
It is common for less formal plans to be created as abstract ideas, and remain in that form as they are maintained and put to use. More formal plans as used for business and military purposes, while initially created with and as an abstract thought, are likely to be written down, drawn up or otherwise stored in a form that is accessible to multiple people across time and space. This allows more reliable collaboration in the execution of the plan.
Estimation is often done by sampling, which is counting a small number of examples something, and projecting that number onto a larger population. An example of estimation would be determining how many candies of a given size are in a glass jar. Because the distribution of candies inside the jar may vary, the observer can count the number of candies visible through the glass, consider the size of the jar, and presume that a similar distribution can be found in the parts that can not be seen, thereby making an estimate of the total number of candies that could be in the jar if that presumption were true. Estimates can similarly be generated by projecting results from polls orsurveys onto the entire population.
In making an estimate, the goal is often most useful to generate a range of possible outcomes that is precise enough to be useful, but not so precise that it is likely to be inaccurate.For example, in trying to guess the number of candies in the jar, if fifty were visible, and the total volume of the jar seemed to be about twenty times as large as the volume containing the visible candies, then one might simply project that there were a thousand candies in the jar. Such a projection, intended to pick the single value that is believed to be closest to the actual value, is called a point estimate.However, a point estimation is likely to be incorrect, because the sample size - in this case, the number of candies that are visible - is too small a number to be sure that it does not contain anomalies that differ from the population as a whole. A corresponding concept is an interval estimate, which captures a much larger range of possibilities, but is too broad to be useful.For example, if one were asked to estimate the percentage of people who like candy, it would clearly be correct that the number falls between zero and one hundred percent.Such an estimate would provide no guidance, however, to somebody who is trying to determine how many candies to buy for a party to be attended by a hundred people
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